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Nguyễn Phương Anh – EPHD 2: Socioeconomic Status, Norms and Bribe-Giving Behaviors Among Citizens of Vietnam

Original Articles

Socioeconomic Status, Norms and Bribe-Giving Behaviors Among Citizens of Vietnam

Phuong Anh Nguyen & Quang Canh Le

Pages 37-48 | Published online: 19 May 2021

International Journal of Public Administration



Bribe-giving of individuals is not only affected by their calculation and knowledge but also the social pressure to comply with the informal norms of corruption. This article investigates the impacts of socioeconomic status and social norms on the individuals’ probability of bribe-giving to access public services. It uses the Probit regression models with robust standard errors to analyze the relationship using data adapted from the Vietnam Global Corruption Barometer and Vietnam Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index surveys. The study employs the bargaining power framework and finds that highly educated people, the poor, and the unemployed were less likely to give bribes. Additionally, citizens living in strong anti-corruption communities and rural areas are less likely to give bribes. These empirical results shed light on the policy design and implementation of anti-corruption measures in emerging countries like Vietnam.

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author(s).

Additional information


This work was supported by the National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) [grant number 502.01-2019.312.].